Toba Tek Singh was developed by the British toward the end of the 19th Century when a canal system was built. People from all over the Punjab (currently Indian and Pakistani Punjab) moved there as farmlands were allotted to them. Most of the people who migrated there belonged to Lahore, Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur districts.
Toba Tek Singh is located in central Punjab and occupies 3252 square kilometres and is made up of large areas of lowlands that flood frequently during the rainy season; the floods originate from the Ravi River that runs along the southern and southeastern borders. During the British raj Toba Tek Singh had a small Sikh polulation that migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Toba Tek Singh District.
According to the 1998 census of Pakistan the population was 905,580 of this, 720,601 were Muslim and 184,979 were non-Muslim, mainly Christian and Ahmadiyya. According to the 2008 estimate the population had risen to 1.39 million.
In the 4th century, the ruler of this place was Raja Surcup who had managed a boundary wall around his city. This fort was well known after the name of Raja Sarcup, a cruel and cunning ruler.Later the founded city was named after Kharal chief, Khan Kamal Khan Kharal, in the 14th Century and was, historically, known as "Kot Kamalia". During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, it was one of the sites of an uprising by the local people, who held it for a week. In 1901, Kamalia had a population of 6,976. Kamalia was historically part of the erstwhile district and tehsil of Montgomery (Sahiwal), Punjab. According to Cunningham, it was one of the towns taken by Alexander the Great in 325 BC.