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Lahore

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IntroductionEdit

Lahore (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced Template:IPA) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and is the second most densely populated city in Pakistan. It is also known as the Paris of the East, Gardens of the Mughals or City of Gardens, after the significant rich heritage of the Mughal Empire. In most popular culture Lahore is known as the Heart of Pakistan. It is located near the rivers Ravi and Wagah close to the Pakistan-India border.

Due to Lahore's rich history, the Mughal and colonial architecture has still been preserved in all its splendour. Alkaram Scientific Traders is also siutated in New anarkali Lahore.Mughal architecture such as, the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens and the mausoleums of Jehangir and Nur Jehan are very popular tourist spots in the city. Various colonial buildings originally built by the British, such as the Lahore High Court, General Post Office (GPO) and many of the older universities still retain their Mughal-Gothic style.

Punjabi is the native language of the province, and is the most widely spoken language in Lahore and rural areas, although Urdu and English are becoming more popular with younger generations as they are officially supported while panjabi has no official patronage. Many people of Lahore who speak Punjabi are known as Lahori Punjabi due to a mixture of Punjabi and colloquial Urdu. According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was nearly 7 million. Mid 2006 government estimates now put the population at somewhere around 10 million. [3] It is the second largest city in Pakistan, after Karachi. Lahore is the 5th largest city in South Asia and 23rd of the largest cities of the world.

HistoryEdit

Main article: History of Lahore

Ancient LahoreEdit

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Lahori Gate which opens to the most ancient districts of Lahore in walled city known in old times as kacha kot

Ptolemy, the celebrated astronomer and geographer mentions a city called Labokla in his Geographia, situated on the route between the river Indus and Palibothra, or Pataliputra (Patna), in a tract of country called Kasperia (Kashmir), described as extending along the rivers Bidastes (Jhelum), Sandabal or Chandra Bhaga (Chenab), and Adris (Ravi). This city may be modern Lahore.Template:Fact

Another legend based on oral traditions lacking in authenticity states that Lahore was named after Lava, son of the Hindu god Rama, who supposedly founded the city. To this day, the Lahore Fort has a vacant temple dedicated to Lava. Likewise, the Ravi River that flows through northern Lahore was named for the Hindu goddess Durga.[1]

The oldest written authentic document about Lahore was written by an anonymous writer in AD 982 and is called Hudud-i-Alam.Template:Fact It was translated by V. Minorsky into English and published in Lahore in 1927. In this document, Lahore is referred to as a small 'shahr' (City) with "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards". It points out to "two major markets around which dwellings exist", and it also points out to "the mud walls that enclose these two dwellings to make it one". The original document can be currently found in the British Museum.Template:Fact

Early Muslim EraEdit

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Mahmud and Ayaz
The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. The figure to his right is Shah Abbas I who reigned about 600 years later.
Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Tehran

There are only a very few references of Lahore until it was captured by Mahmud in 10th century. During 1021, Mahmud appointed the throne to Ayaz, making Lahore the capital of the Ghaznavid Empire. Malik Ayaz, son of Aymáq Abu'n-Najm, was a Turkic slave who rose to the rank of officer and general in the army of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (also known as Mahmud Ghaznavi).Template:Fact

His rise to power was a reward for the devotion and love he bore his master. The Sultan is seen as an example of the man who, because of the power of his love, becomes "a slave to his slave." Ayaz became the paragon of devotion, and a model of purity in Sufi literature. The two, Ayaz and Mahmud of Ghazni have gained pride of place among the favorite pairs of devoted in Persian literature.Template:Fact

In 1021 the Sultan raised Ayaz to kingship, awarding him the throne of Lahore, which the Sultan had taken after a long siege and a fierce battle in which the city was torched and depopulated. As the first Muslim governor of Lahore, he rebuilt and repopulated the city. He also added many important features, such as a masonry fort which he built in 1037-1040 on the ruins of the previous one, demolished in the fighting, and city gates (as recorded by Munshi Sujan Rae Bhandari, author of the Khulasatut Tawarikh in 1695-96 C.E.).Template:Fact The present Lahore Fort is built in the same location. Under his rulership the city became a cultural and academic center, renowned for poetry. It is said that in old age "Sultán Mahmúd . . . spent his whole time in the society of Malik Ayáz, neglecting the business of the state."[2] The tomb of Malik Ayaz can still be seen in the Rang Mahal commercial area of town.

After the fall of the Ghaznavid Empire, Lahore was ruled by various Muslim dynasties known as the Delhi Sultanate including the Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Sayyid, Lodhis and Suris.Template:Fact When Sultan Qutb-ud-din Aybak was crowned in 1206 here, he became the first Muslim Sultan of the subcontinent. It was not until 1524 AD that Lahore became part of the Mughal Empire.

Mughal EraEdit

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Roshnai Gate - Original Gate built by Mughal emperor Akbar.

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Badshahi Masjid

Lahore touched the peak of architectural glory during the rule of the Mughals. The Mughal emperors beautified the city with some of the finest architectural buildings and gardens that have survived the hazards of time. It was this reputation of Lahore that fascinated the English poet John Milton who wrote in 1670: "Agra and Lahore, the Seat of Great Mughal."Template:Fact

In 1585 AD Mughal emperor Akbar decided to make Lahore the capital of the Mughal Empire. From 1524 to 1752 Lahore was part of the Mughal Empire. During Akbar's rule, Lahore was the capital of the empire from 1584 to 1598. During this time a massive fort, the Lahore Fort, was built on the ruins of an older fort. A few buildings within the fort were added by his heir and son, Jahangir, the Mughal emperor who is buried in the city. Shah Jahan, his son, was born in Lahore. He, like his father, extended the Lahore Fort and built many other structures in the city, such as the Shalimar Gardens.The last of the great Mughals, Aurangzeb, who ruled from 1658 to 1707, built the city's most famous monuments, the Badshahi Masjid and the Alamgiri Gate next to the Lahore Fort. This attracts many tourists yearly and is used by the Government to address the nation or social events.Template:Fact Cats are white


The land of Lahore also played host to one of the most brutual tortures in the history of mankind. The fifth Sikh Guru(prophet) Guru Arjan Dev was martyred in lahore. On the 16 June of every year since 1606, the Sikhs have commemorated the martyrdom of their first martyr, the fifth Guru, Guru Arjan Dev. Sikh history until then had been peaceful and non-violent. All the Sikh Gurus had taught the message of compassion, love, dedication, hard work, worship of one God and the commitment to peace and harmony for all the peoples of the world.


After the death of Mughal Emperor Akbar in 1605, his son Jahagir became the leader of India. Muslim fundamentalists concerned at the rapid increase in the popularity of Sikhism, moved the new head of state Emperor Jahangir against the Guru. Jahangir himself was also jealous about Guru. He promptly obliged the enemies of Guru Sahib. Many baseless allegations were levelled against Guru Sahib, one of those was helping the rebellious Khusrau, who was Jahangir's son and determined to rule Punjab.

This is what Emperor Jahangir wrote in his diary called the "Tuzuk-i-Jahagiri", which translates to "Memoirs of Jahangir"

"In Gobindwal, which is on the river Biyãh (Beas), there was a Hindu named Arjun,’ in the garments of sainthood and sanctity, so much so that he had captured many of the simple-hearted of the Hindus, and even of the ignorant and foolish followers of Islam, by his ways and manners, and they had loudly sounded the drum of his holiness. They called him Guru, and from all sides stupid people crowded to worship and manifest complete faith in him. For three or four generations (of spiritual successors) they had kept this shop warm. Many times it occurred to me to put a stop to this vain affair or to bring him into the assembly of the people of Islam.

At last when Khusrau passed along this road this insignificant fellow proposed to wait upon him. Khusrau happened to halt at the place where he was, and he came out and did homage to him. He behaved to Khusrau in certain special ways, and made on his forehead a finger-mark in saffron, which the Indians (Hinduwän) call qashqa, (Tilak) and is considered propitious. When this came to my ears and I clearly understood his folly, I ordered them to produce him and handed over his houses, dwelling-places, and children to Murtaza Khan, and having confiscated his property commanded that he should be put to death."

Accordingly in late May 1606, Guru Arjan Dev was arrested and brought to Lahore where he was subject to severe torture. He was made to sit on a burning hot plate while hot sand was poured over his head and body. It is said that Mian Mir (a Muslim Sufi Saint and friend of Guru Sahib) tried to intercede on behalf of Guru Sahib but Guru ji forbid him to interfere in the "Will of the Almighty". Guru Ji body was blistered and burnt but shockingly he didn't even utter a word in pain apar from reciting the name of true lord God. For several days, the Guru was subjected to this unrelenting torture. Subsequently, Guru Arjan Dev demanded for a bath in the river, Ravi. As thousands watched he entered the river never to be seen again. Thus Guru Sahib embraced martyrdom on Jeth Sudi 4th (1st Harh) Samvat 1663, (May 16, 1606).

The martyrdom of Guru Sahib changed the entire character of the revolt radically from a passive people to courageous saint soldiers.

17th and 18th CenturyEdit

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Gurdwara Dera Sahib Sikh Temple

During the 18th century, as Mughal power dwindled, there were constant invasions. Lahore was a suba, a province of the Afghan Empire, governed by provincial rulers with their own court. These governors managed as best they could though for much of the time it must have been a rather thankless task to even attempt.

Sikh rule by Sher-e PanjabEdit

The 1740s were years of chaos and between 1745 and 1756 there were nine changes of governors.[citation needed] Invasions and chaos in local government allowed Sikhs Misls groups to gain control in some areas.In 1799 all Sikh Misls joined into one to from a Sikh Sovreign Sikh State,it was ruled by Maharaja ranjeet Singh from the Royal Capital Lahore,(Ranjeet Singh also known as Sher-e-Panjab, lion of the Panjab).This was known as the Golden Age of the Sikhs.

Lahore had many foreign visitors from Europe and beyond and was a centre of great multi culturalism in the State something that didn't exist in the mughal dictionary.

His Empire was effectively secular as it did not discriminate against Muslims, Hindus or the Sikhs. It was relatively modern and had great respect for all religions and non-religious traditions of the Empire.

This was in sharp contrast with the ethnic and religious cleansing of past Mughal rulers. Ranjit Singh had created a state based upon noble traditions, where everyone worked together, regardless of background, and where citizens were made to look at the things that they shared in common, e.g. being Punjabi, rather than any religious differences.

He ruled Panjab in a fair and equal way, and had embassies in Russia, China, and other European States, including Western Generals in His Army, and Muslim Soldiers. The power was shared among people from all faiths and Muslims like Azizuddin (Foreign Minister) held the key positions in the government.

At the end of the Sikh Rule the Hindus lived up to their reputation of past and this time Hindu Dogras betrayed the Sovereign State of Panjab, by giving intelligence to the British,of where Panjab's Military was based and at what border, thus allowing for British Generals to plan an effective attack on Panjab and add it to British India. Sikhs to this day can never forgive the Hindu Dogras for what they did and how they helped to destroy one of the most secular, peaceful and free Nations the World has ever seen.

British RuleEdit

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Map of Lahore 1893

The second and final Anglo-Sikh war, resulted in the British victory, bringing Lahore under the rule of the British crown.

The British during their reign started the heera mandi (1849 -1947) compensated Lahore, by harmoniously combining Mughal, Gothic and Victorian styles of architecture. The GPO and YMCA buildings built to commemorate the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria - an event marked by the construction of clock towers and monuments all over India. They built some important buildings, like the High Court. the Government College, the Museums, the National College of Arts, Montgomery Hall, Tollinton Market, the University of the Punjab (Old Campus) and the Provincial Assembly. At one end of The Mall stands the University - perhaps the largest center of education in Asia. The city has built a new Campus in the quieter environments on the Canal Bank, but the old University buildings are still functioning.

Role in IndependenceEdit

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Minar-e-Pakistan, where the Pakistan Resolution was passed

Lahore enjoys a special position in the history of India's freedom-struggle. The 1929 Congress session was held at Lahore. In this Congress, the resolution of "Complete Independence" was moved by Pandit Nehru, the then young leader, and passed unanimously over the banks of Ravi, in the midnight of 31st December 1929. It was this occasion when the contemporary Tricolour of India (with a Charkha at its centre) was hoisted as a national flag, and thousands of people saluted it.

Lahore prison was always a place to detain revolutionary freedom fighters. Noted freedom fighter Jatin Das died in Lahore prison after fasting to death for 63 days, in protest of inhuman treatment given by British government to the political prisoners.One of the greatest martyrs in the history of Indian independence Shaheed Sardar Bhagat Singh was hanged in Lahore Jail.

The most important session of the All India Muslim League, later Pakistan Muslim League, the premier party fighting for Indian independence and creation of Pakistan, was held in Lahore in 1940.Template:Fact Muslims under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam demanded a separate homeland for Muslims of India. This is called the "Pakistan Resolution" or "The Lahore Resolution". This was the first occasion when the infamous Two Nation Theory was openly proposed by Jeenah.

Lahore is regarded as the heart of Pakistan. The people of Lahore always gave their lives for the freedom and protection of their country. Lahore was in fact, called as Paris of the East before the riots of 1947. Among all cities of India, Lahore suffered the greatest loss due to the Partition of Punjab in 1947.

Independence and Modern EraEdit

At independence, Lahore was given the status of being the capital of the Punjab province in the new state of Pakistan. Since 1947, Lahore was heavily affected by large-scale riots between Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs that led to huge structural damages to many historical monuments such as the Lahore Fort, Badshahi mosque and other colonial buildings.Template:Fact However, with UN protection groups the Government of Pakistan was able finance funds to make the monuments return to their former glory. During 1974, the Second Islamic Summit Conference was held in the city. In 1996 the ICC Cricket World Cup final match was held at the Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore and now Lahore will host the 2011 Cricket World Cup, where the semi final match will be played.Template:Fact

Geography and climate Edit

Lahore is bounded on the north and west by the Sheikhupura District, on the east by Wagah and on the south Kasur District. The Ravi River flows on the northern side of Lahore. Lahore city covers a total land area of 404 km², but the city is still growing at a considerable rate. The city lies between 31°15′ and 31°45′ North latitude and 74°01′ and 74°39′ East longitude.

The weather of Lahore is extreme during the months of May, June, and July when the temperatures soar to 45 – 50 degrees Celsius which is the hottest time of the year. Following the end of July the monsoon seasons starts with heavy rainfall throughout the city as well as the province. December, January and February are the coldest months when temperatures can drop to −1 degree Celsius.

However, the city’s highest ever maximum temperature is 48 degrees C that was recorded on June 6, 1921. But on June 09, 2007, merciless sun beat down in full force in the plains of Lahore, as elsewhere in Punjab, taking the Friday’s temperature to 48 degrees Celsius - a "feat" accomplished after 78 years. The meteorological office recorded the temperature under the shade and it said the heat index (directly under the sun) was 55 degrees C. [3]

Government Edit

The City-District of Lahore comprises nine administrative towns and one separate military cantonment but there are also some historic neighborhoods of Lahore.

Administrative towns

Localities

Neighbourhoods

DemographicsEdit

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According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was nearly 6.8 million. Mid 2006 government estimates now put the population at somewhere around 10 million, which makes it the second largest city in Pakistan, after Karachi. It is considered to be one of the thirty largest cities of the world. Also according to the 1998 census, 86.2%, or 6,896,000 of the population are Punjabis, 10.2% or 816,000 are Muhajir. There are known to be more than a million Pashtun in Lahore(the vast majority of whom are settling. Finally, the Seraikis at 0.4% number about 32,000.Template:Fact. Figures are unavailable for the many Afghan refugees and migrants from Iran who have permanently settled in Lahore but where not included in the census.

Many languages are spoken in Lahore, including Punjabi, Urdu, Pashto, Persian/Farsi and English. According to the 1998 census, 96% of Lahore's population is Muslim. Other religions include Christians, Qadiani's and a small number of Bahais, Zorastrian, Hindus and Sikhs.Template:Fact

CityscapeEdit

ArchitectureEdit

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Diwan-e-Aam: Hall of Public Audience (arched vault and ceiling not original)

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Main Boulevard passes through the district of Gulberg

The Architecture of Lahore reflects the history of Lahore and is remarkable for its variety and uniqueness. There are buildings left from the centuries ago rule of the Mughal Dynasty as well as from the era of the British Raj, whose style is a mixture of Victorian and Islamic architecture often referred to as "Mughal Gothic."Template:Fact In addition, there are newer buildings which are very modern in their design. An interesting fact about Lahore's architecture is that, unlike the emphasis on functional architecture in the West, much of Lahore's architecture has always been about making a statement as much as anything else.Template:Fact

Public SpaceEdit

ShoppingEdit

Lahore's most famous tech-bazaar is the Hafeez Center located on the Gulberg Main Boulevard and Electronics Market at Hall Road. Here one can find the latest computer systems, accessories, mobile phones and music CDs.Template:Fact Other well known and popular shopping areas are the Liberty Market in Gulberg and at the Fortress Stadium. There are also many smart shopping malls in Gulberg, Model Town, M.M. Alam Road and Cantonment. Apart from these are many new shopping areas being developed in many of Lahore's brand new suburban developments, such as Bahria, Lake City, and the cantonment.

For traditional shopping, the Anarkali and Ichhra bazaars are the most popular of the city’s many bazaars.Template:Fact The alleys and lanes of this bazaar are full of traditional wares like leather articles, embroidered garments, glass bangles, beaten gold and silver jewellery, creations in silk-anything that your wish for a bargain. Anarkali is named after the famous courtesan of Akbar’s court called Anarkali (Pomegranate Blossom). The grave of Sultan Qutbuddin Aibak, who died falling off his horse while playing polo is located in Anarkali. Mahmud Ghaznavi's General Malik Ayaz lies buried in the commercial area of Rang Mahal.Template:Fact

Restaurants and cafés Edit

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View of food street Lahore

Lahoris are known for their love of food and eating.Template:Fact While Lahore has a great many traditional and modern restaurants, in recent years there have been the appearance of Western fast food chains, such as McDonald's, Pizza Hut, Subway Sandwiches, Dunkin Donuts, Nando's and Kentucky Fried Chicken all over the city. A recent tourist attraction in Lahore is the famous Food Street in the historic locales of Lahore (Gawalmandi, Anarkali, and Badshahi). Food Streets have undergone restorations and are cordoned off in the evenings for pedestrian traffic only, with numerous cafés serving local delicacies under the lights and balconies of restored havelis (traditional residential dwellings).

One of Lahore's most well-known outlets is Phajje ke Paye, with its original branch located in Hira Mandi

Some of the trendiest restaurants in Lahore are concentrated on the M M Alam Road in Gulberg. Here, dozens of high-class culinary outlets, ranging from western franchises to very traditional, ethnic, or theme restaurants, attract all classes of Lahore's citizens. New restaurants are constantly opening, and the business is extremely competitive. It is said that eating well is a peculiarly Lahori attribute, and the innumerable crowded, boisterous restaurants of Lahore that are open late into the night are a visible testament to this passion.

One of Lahore's unique café restaurants is "Coocoo's Den", located in the old city just behind the Badshahi Mosque and Lahore Fort.Template:Fact The restaurant is housed in a 300-year old "Kothi" style house of a famous artist. At different points in the life of this property, Hindu, Buddhist, Christian and Muslim families have owned it. Another famous Lahore landmark is the Pak Tea House in Anarkali, long a favoured haunt of intellectuals and artists.

MuseumsEdit

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A side view of the entrance to the museum.

Lahore Museum was established in 1894 in Lahore, Pakistan, and is one of the major museums of South Asia. Lahore Museum is also known as Central Museum, and is located on The Mall. Rudyard Kipling's father, John Lockwood Kipling, was one of the curators of the museum.Template:Fact

It is located opposite the old University Hall, a Mughal style building on the Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam. The Museum contains some fine specimens of Mughal and Sikh door-ways and wood-work and contains a large collection of paintings dating back to Mughal, Sikh and British era.

Tollinton Market is one of the earliest Raj buildings on the Mall. This building, according to the excellent guide by Thornton and Kipling "was hastily constructed for the Punjab Exhibition of 1864, and was not intended to be permanent; but want of funds has prevented hitherto the erection of a more suitable structure."Template:Fact At its entrance stood the famous cannon Zamzamah, which was brought there from its previous location near the Delhi gate. The exhibition displayed both specimens of the antiquities, arts and manufactures of the Punjab, and specimens of its raw products, vegetable, mineral and animal. Later, it became the most important municipal market outside the Old City selling fresh fruit, vegetables and other consumable items.

Gardens and ParksEdit

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The Shalimar Gardens built by Emperor Shah Jehan

Lahore is known as the City of Gardens.Template:Fact There were many gardens in Lahore during the Mughal era, and although some have since been destroyed, many still survive.

The Shalimar Gardens were laid out during the reign of Shah Jahan and were designed to mimic the Islamic paradise of the afterlife described in the Quran. The gardens follow the familiar char bagh model (four squares) with three descending terraces.Template:Fact

The Lawrence Gardens were established in 1862 and were originally named after Sir John Lawrence, late 19th century British Viceroy to India. The gardens were organized in an area covering 112 acres.Template:Fact The vow of the East India Company was that it would bring 80,000 saplings of 600 different species from every corner of the world, where in those days, the sun never set. After collecting money from the sale of Badami Bagh, the Soldier's Bazaar at Anarkali and from a grant by the "Company Bahadur”, the land was purchased in the year 1860. Today it is known as Bagh-e-Jinnah.Template:Fact

There are also many other gardens and parks in the city, including: Hazuri Bagh, Iqbal Park, Mochi Bagh, Gulshan Iqbal Park, Model Town Park, Race Course Park, Nasir Bagh Lahore, Jallo Park, Wild Life Park, and Changa Manga (Artificial Forest Near Lahore in Kasur district).

EducationEdit

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Punjab University Old Campus

Lahore is known as the education capital of Pakistan, with more colleges and universities than any other city in Pakistan.[4] The city holds some of the finest institutes of higher education in the country, including a number of public and private universities. Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities.Template:Fact LUMS, the Lahore University of Management Sciences, is the most renowned business school in Pakistan. The University of Lahore is also a fine university in the private sector. It is located in the industrial area of the city where students have full opportunity to get jobs and internships.Template:Fact

The University of the Punjab is the oldest institute of higher learning in the country and is nationally recognized as a prestigious university.[5] NCA, the National College of Arts, is the oldest and most renowned arts college of Pakistan.Template:Fact The oldest institution of Pakistan, Government College Lahore (now University) is also situated in Lahore. It was established in 1864.

TransportationEdit

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The Allama Iqbal International Airport: one of the largest international airports in Pakistan

Lahore is one of the most accessible cities of Pakistan.Template:Fact In addition to the historic Grand Trunk Road (G.T. road), a motorway was completed in 1997, from Lahore to Islamabad. Due to Lahore ever increasing traffic problems the government introduced many underpasses to ease congestion and prevent traffic jams. According to official figures, Lahore has the highest number of underpasses in Pakistan. Lahore still has very high levels of air pollution and smog, mostly due to the industry growing at an ever-increasing rate. Air pollution levels are reaching record peaks and smog is so thick that on some days it is only possible to see a few metres ahead before a huge haze is visible.Template:Fact

The Pakistan Railways Headquarters is located in Lahore.Template:Fact Pakistan Railways provides an important mode of transportation for commuters in Lahore. The railway connects the farthest corners of the country and brings them closer to Lahore for business, sight seeing, pilgrimage and education. The Lahore Central Railway Station is also located in the heart of the city, which was built during the British Colonial era.

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Double Decker Buses are back in Lahore after almost 20 years.Template:Fact

As air travel has been on the rise, the government built a completely new airport for the city that was constructed in 2003.Template:Fact It was named Allama Iqbal International Airport after the national poet of Pakistan Mohammed Iqbal, and is served by many international airlines as well as the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines. With the opening of Allama Iqbal International Airport, the previous airport now operates as the Hajj Terminal to facilitate the great influx of pilgrims travelling to Saudi Arabia to perform the hajj every year.Template:Fact

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Lahore Railway Station

However, despite all these swift improvements, Lahore still struggles to keep its inhabitants safe on the road. The roads in Lahore are seen by many to be the most dangerous in Pakistan after Karachi as the number of vehicles on the road outnumbers the amount of roads and/or the amount of space in the road.Template:Fact For this reason, there is a massive manic and street-rush everyday as millions of Lahoris travel to their respective destinations through unorganised yet fast-moving traffic. Traffic accidents are rife and crossing the road still seems to be an impossible challenge for many. Government is applying measures to improve traffic condition by construction is overhead bridges, under passes and also by spreading traffic and roads awareness between people through media, public workers, NGOs and police. There are also plans to create a mass transit system in the city as well as high speed railway between Lahore and Rawalpindi.Template:Fact


EconomyEdit

The center to Lahore's economy is the LSE, Lahore Stock Exchange, Pakistan's second largest stock exchange; it is closely linked to the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE).Template:Fact The Lahore has offices of all Pakistani government corporations including WAPDA and WASA as well as other public companies such as Deewan Motors, Habib Bank, Pakistan State Oil and Lever Brothers. Lahore also hosts the country's largest IT companies, most of which are located in the IT park, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the Pakistan's software exports.Template:Fact Food and restaurant businesses remain open all night long. The shopping markets are usually open late into the night.Template:Fact Lahore is the second largest financial hub of Pakistan and has various industrial areas including Kot Lakhpat and the new Sundar Industrial Estate (near Raiwand).

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Water And Power Dvelopment Authority (WAPDA) House Building

As Lahore expands, previous residential areas are being turned into commercial centres and the suburban population is constantly moving outwards. This has resulted in the development of the Liberty Market, the MM Alam Road, the new Jail Road which has some of the largest office buildings in Lahore, and the new eight-lane Main Boulevard which has some of Lahore's largest and finest shopping centres.Template:Fact

The suburban population from these areas are moving into less busy areas which results in a thriving construction industry and several large housing projects in Lahore. These include Bahria Town, Lake City project, Eden Villas and a project by the Dhabi Group (a joint Pakistan-UAE partnership) to construct a new city on the outskirts of Lahore.Template:Fact

Lahore is famous as the hub of handmade carpet manufacturing in Pakistan.[6] At present, hand-knitted carpets produced in and around Lahore are among Pakistan's leading export products and their manufacturing is the second largest cottage and small industry. Lahore based carpet exports make up nearly 85% of all carpet exports of Pakistan.Template:Fact Craftsmen in Lahore have the ability to produce any type of carpet using all the popular motifs: medallions, paisleys, traceries and geometric designs in various combinations. The Lahore Design Centre at the Punjab Small Industries Corporation maintains a separate section of carpet designing to experiment with new designs. Lahore is famous for single-wefted designs in Turkoman and Caucasian style, and double-wefted Mughal types.

Lahore's economic importance lies also on many government institutes and international companies headquartered in the city, including: WorldCALL Telecom Group,Pakistan Railways, Pakistan Cricket Board, Punjab University, NCA, LUMS, Bata shoes, Haier, Wateen telecom, Warid Telecom, Honda, Reebok, Daewoo, Nestle, Coca Cola, Tetra Pak, Monsanto, Delaval, Metro Cash & Carry, Mr Cod, Porsche, Rolls Royce.Template:Fact

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Alamgir Tower Lahore; under Construction 650ft tall shopping Mall.

The city's economic importance also lies due to its historic and cultural importance, even though, unlike other smaller cities, industrial estates are far fewer and smaller. Being the capital of the largest province in Pakistan fetches the city the highest amount of development budget in the country. As of 2005 the city's GDP by PPP is estimated at $28 billion with an average growth rate of 5.9% [4], making it the 122nd largest city in the world in GDP terms and above the cities of Macau,Cardiff, Sharjah, Casabalanca, Chengdu, Xian, Chittagong, Baghdad,PyongYang, Abidjan, Nairobi and more than the GDP of Whole Countries such as Qatar, Yemen, Monaco, Bahrain,Cyprus, Lebanon, Iceland, Jamaica, Afghanistan, Zimbabwe and Albania. [5]

Note: These are just the comparisons of GDP of the cities and countries and does not take into account the annual growth rate, education, health facilities, crime rate, human development index and relative population, e.g. Macau's population is just a fraction of Lahore's, etc. This just shows the relative sizes of the market in terms of the Gross Domestic Product by purchasing power parity.

Culture Edit

PakistanLahoreHorse&CattleShow

One of the horses on display at the annual horse & cattle show

Lahore's culture is unique due to its history. Known as the cultural capital or the Heart of Pakistan for the same reason, the city has been the seat to The Mughal Empire, the Sikh Empire and the capital of Punjab in the Mahmud Ghaznavi's Empire (11th century) and the British Empire.

Lahore played an important role in Pakistani history, as it was in this city where the declaration for Pakistan was made. The city was the only known major city of the British Empire which would come into the new Muslims state.Template:Fact It was the largest city in the newly formed Pakistan at the time of independence and provided the easiest access to India, with its porous border near the Indian city of Amritsar, only thirty miles to the east. There was a high proportion of Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims living closely in Lahore in the pre-Partition era, and thus it suffered many revolts and demonstrations, as well as bloodshed and mobs, at the time of independence.Template:Fact Lahore was also wanted by the Sikhs as it used to be their capital before the British. Initially, Lahore was planned to be made the capital of the newly-formed Pakistan, but the idea was dropped due to the city's close proximity to India; Karachi was chosen instead.Template:Fact Lahore's unique history amounts up to a culture which is among the most rich in the world. The history, institutions, food, clothing, films, music, fashion, and liberal community lifestyle attract many from all over the country.

PakistanLahoreBasantFestival

Kites for sale on the streets of Lahore on the eve of the Basant festival

Lahore is an extremely festive city. The people of Lahore celebrate many festivals and events throughout the year, blending Mughal, Western and current trends. Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha are celebrated with enthusiasm. Many people decorate their houses and light candles to illuminate the streets and houses; roads and businesses are lit up for days during these public holidays.Template:Fact

Basant is a Punjabi festival that marks the coming of spring. Basant celebrations in Pakistan are centered in Lahore, and people from all over the country as well as abroad come to the city for the annual festivities. Kite flying competitions take place all over the city's rooftops during Basant. During the last years, the event has been banned by the court because of the casualties and power installation losses it causes every year. However, the ban was recently lifted.Template:Fact

The Festival of Lamps, or Mela Chiraghan, is an important and popular event in Lahore. This is celebrated at the same time as Basant, every spring on the last Friday of March, outside the Shalimar Gardens. People from all walks of life gather to participate.

The National Horse and Cattle Show is one of the most famous annual festivals, it is held in Spring in the Fortress Stadium. During the week long activities, there is a display of livestock, horse and camel dances, tent pegging, colourful folk dances from all regions of Pakistan, mass-band displays and tattoo shows in the evenings.

On August 14, the people of Pakistan celebrate the day Pakistan gained its independence from the British Raj. There are lots of celebrations in Lahore, the streets are full of people singing and dancing. Parades of the Pakistan Army and Pakistan Airforce are held early in the morning. Concerts are held with many pop and classical singers.

The World Performing Arts Festival is held every autumn (usually in November) at the Alhambra cultural complex, a large venue consisting of several theatres and amphitheatres. This ten day festival consists of musicals, theatre, concerts, dance, solo, mime and puppetry shows. This has a rich international character with nearly 80% of the shows performed by international performers. On average 15-20 different shows are performed every day of the festival [7].

SportsEdit

PakistanLahoreGadaffiStadium Building

The Imran Khan Enclosure gate at Gaddafi Stadium

Gaddafi Stadium is a Test cricket ground in Lahore, Pakistan. It was designed by Pakistani architect Nayyar Ali Dada and completed in 1959. After its renovation for the 1996 Cricket World Cup, the stadium has a capacity of over 60,000 spectators for high profile matches or events. Near by is an athletics stadium, a basketball pitch, an Al Hamra open air hall similar in design to the coliseum and the worlds largest field hockey stadium, all of these in a single huge complex.

The Lahore Marathon, is part of an annual package of six international marathons being sponsored by Standard Chartered Bank across Asia, Africa and Middle East. The Lahore marathon race carries prize money of approximately US$ 100,000. More than 20,000 athletes both from Pakistan and all over the world participate in this event. It was first held on January 30, 2005, then on January 29, 2006. More than 22,000 people participated in the race during 2006. The third marathon was held on January 14, 2007 [8].

  • sports city
    • First sports city in pakistan will build on the bank of river ravi

Eddy Gonsalvez of Gulberg, Lahore is a famous amateur boxer who won many titles. He is famous for introducing boxing to the youth of Lahore.

Sites of interest Edit

PakistanLahoreFortAlamgiriGate

Lahore Fort

PakistanLahoreBadshahiMasjidAtNight

Badshahi Masjid

PakistanLahoreMinarEPakistansWestSide

Minar-e-Pakistan

PakistanLahoreHazuriBagh

Roshnai Gate from Hazuri Bagh

PakistanLahoreTollintonMarketOnTheMallRoad

Newly restored Tollinton Market on The Mall - one of Lahore's busiest thoroughfares

PakistanLahoreEmperorJahangir'sTomb

Jahangir's mausoleum at Shahdara, near Lahore

  • Amusement parks
    • Joy Land
    • Sindbad
    • Sozo Water Park
    • Sky land
    • Mini golf
    • Gulshan iqbal park
    • wild life park
    • Jalo park
    • Race course park
    • Model town park
    • Bagh e jinnah
  • Famous roads
    • The Mall (shopping and business)
    • Jail Road (business)
    • M M Alam Road (restaurants and shopping)
    • Main Boulevard (commercial and shopping)
    • Canal Bank (residential and educational)
    • Ferozepur Road (commercial and sports)
    • Allama iqbal town main boulevard ( resturants shopping and commercial)
    • Food Street (outdoor cafés)
    • Multan road (commercial and bussiness)
    • Hall road ( Asia's biggest electronic mall)
    • Mechlou Road (automobiles market)
  • Hotels
    • Avari Hotel
    • Pearl Continental Hotel
    • Holiday Inn
    • Best Western
    • Grand Hyatt (2010)
    • Hyatt Regency (2009)
    • Royal Palm Golf and Country Club & Intercontinental Hotel
    • Casino Hotel
  • Resorts
  • Lahore country club

Photo Gallery of Old Lahore Edit

Sister Cities Edit

Lahore has several sister cities including:

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  • Contrary to popular belief, Lahore has no twinning connections with India, Iraq, Canada, or Saudi Arabia.
  • In the 1970's, Istanbul was the first city to be twinned with Lahore, followed by Sariwon.
  • The latest cities were twinned in early 2007: Belgrade, Chicago, Córdoba, Krakow, Kortrijk, Mashad and Isfahan.
  • The locality of Hounslow in West London is twinned with Cantt, a suburb of Lahore.

Lahore in literatureEdit

See also Edit

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References Edit

  1. Template:Cite book
  2. Čištī, `Abd al-Rahmān, The History of India, Volume 2, chpt. 134
  3. The Daily Dawn dated June 10, 2007
  4. Template:Cite book
  5. Template:Cite web
  6. Template:Cite web
  7. World Performing Arts Festival
  8. Lahore Marathon Website
  9. [1]
  10. - Glasgow 'twinned' with Lahore
  11. [2]
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External linksEdit

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Template:Territorial Capitals in Pakistan Template:Punjab (Pakistan)


This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Lahore. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. See Project:Licensing.

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